This is such an interesting passage, one packed with such love and comfort and theology. I did not realize Jesus spoke all of it to explain to the Pharisees and Jews why they didn't believe. The did not believe because they were not his sheep.
The order of things is often unnoticed. People hear his voice -- because they are his sheep -- not the other way around! When he says he has other sheep that are not of this fold and he must go gather them, they are his sheep before they are in his fold! Wow!
Three times he speaks of laying down his life for the sheep.
They asked him to speak plainly whether he was the Christ. . . and when he did, they tried to stone him. The Jews clearly understood his statements to communicate that he was equal with God. His "you are gods" reference is a grammatical argument. I think it was designed to slow them down, but not stop them.